Chinese scientists have cloned two monkeys using the same technique that produced Dolly the sheep two decades ago.
The scientists have been accused of paving the way to living human clones after creating two genetically identical monkeys.
Two identical long-tailed macaques called Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua were born eight and six weeks ago, making them the first primates, the order of mammals that includes monkeys, apes and humans, to be cloned from a non-embryonic cell.
Previously scientists have managed to ‘clone’ primates by splitting an embryo in half but the process was essentially artificial twinning rather than true cloning.
The BBC reports: Scientists say populations of monkeys that are genetically identical will be useful for research into human diseases.
But critics say the work raises ethical concerns by bringing the world closer to human cloning.
Qiang Sun of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience said the cloned monkeys will be useful as a model for studying diseases with a genetic basis, including some cancers, metabolic and immune disorders.
“There are a lot of questions about primate biology that can be studied by having this additional model,” he said.
Zhong Zhong was born eight weeks ago and Hua Hua six weeks ago. They are named after the Mandarin term for the Chinese nation and people.
The researchers say the monkeys are being bottle fed and are currently growing normally. They expect more macaque clones to be born over the coming months.
‘Not a stepping stone’
Prof Robin Lovell-Badge of The Francis Crick Institute, London, said the technique used to clone Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua remains “a very inefficient and hazardous procedure”.
“The work in this paper is not a stepping-stone to establishing methods for obtaining live born human clones,” he said.
Prof Darren Griffin of the University of Kent said the approach may be useful in understanding human diseases, but raised ethical concerns.
“Careful consideration now needs to be given to the ethical framework under which such experiments can, and should, operate,” he said.
Dolly made history 20 years ago after being cloned at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh. It was the first time scientists had been able to clone a mammal from an adult cell, taken from the udder.
Since then many other mammals have been cloned using the same somatic cell nuclear transfer technique (SCNT), including cattle, pigs, dogs, cats, mice and rats.
This involves transferring DNA from the nucleus of a cell to a donated egg cell, which has had its own DNA removed. This is then prompted to develop into an embryo and implanted in a surrogate animal.
Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua are the first non-human primates cloned through this technique.