Universe Had No Beginning And No Big Bang, Scientists Say

Scientists say the Universe had no beginning and no big bang

Physicists have announced that the universe may have existed forever, and that the Big Bang may never have occurred, according to a new quantum model of the Universe. 

The new model applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and accounts for dark matter and dark energy. reports:

The widely accepted age of the universe, as estimated by general relativity, is 13.8 billion years. In the beginning, everything in existence is thought to have occupied a single infinitely dense point, or singularity. Only after this point began to expand in a “Big Bang” did the universe officially begin.

Although the Big Bang singularity arises directly and unavoidably from the mathematics of general relativity, some scientists see it as problematic because the math can explain only what happened immediately after—not at or before—the singularity.

“The Big Bang singularity is the most serious problem of general relativity because the laws of physics appear to break down there,” Ahmed Farag Ali at Benha University and the Zewail City of Science and Technology, both in Egypt, told

Ali and coauthor Saurya Das at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, have shown in a paper published in Physics Letters B that the Big Bang singularity can be resolved by their new model in which the universe has no beginning and no end.

Old ideas revisited

The physicists emphasize that their quantum correction terms are not applied ad hoc in an attempt to specifically eliminate the Big Bang singularity. Their work is based on ideas by the theoretical physicist David Bohm, who is also known for his contributions to the philosophy of physics. Starting in the 1950s, Bohm explored replacing classical geodesics (the shortest path between two points on a curved surface) with quantum trajectories.

In their paper, Ali and Das applied these Bohmian trajectories to an equation developed in the 1950s by physicist Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri at Presidency University in Kolkata, India. Raychaudhuri was also Das’s teacher when he was an undergraduate student of that institution in the ’90s.

Using the quantum-corrected Raychaudhuri equation, Ali and Das derived quantum-corrected Friedmann equations, which describe the expansion and evolution of universe (including the Big Bang) within the context of general relativity. Although it’s not a true theory of quantum gravity, the model does contain elements from both quantum theory and general relativity. Ali and Das also expect their results to hold even if and when a full theory of quantum gravity is formulated.

No singularities nor dark stuff

In addition to not predicting a Big Bang singularity, the new model does not predict a “big crunch” singularity, either. In general relativity, one possible fate of the universe is that it starts to shrink until it collapses in on itself in a big crunch and becomes an infinitely dense point once again.

Ali and Das explain in their paper that their model avoids singularities because of a key difference between classical geodesics and Bohmian trajectories. Classical geodesics eventually cross each other, and the points at which they converge are singularities. In contrast, Bohmian trajectories never cross each other, so singularities do not appear in the equations.

In cosmological terms, the scientists explain that the quantum corrections can be thought of as a cosmological constant term (without the need for dark energy) and a radiation term. These terms keep the universe at a finite size, and therefore give it an infinite age. The terms also make predictions that agree closely with current observations of the cosmological constant and density of the universe.

New gravity particle

In physical terms, the model describes the universe as being filled with a quantum fluid. The scientists propose that this fluid might be composed of gravitons—hypothetical massless particles that mediate the force of gravity. If they exist, gravitons are thought to play a key role in a theory of quantum gravity.

In a related paper, Das and another collaborator, Rajat Bhaduri of McMaster University, Canada, have lent further credence to this model. They show that gravitons can form a Bose-Einstein condensate (named after Einstein and another Indian physicist, Satyendranath Bose) at temperatures that were present in the universe at all epochs.

Motivated by the model’s potential to resolve the Big Bang singularity and account for dark matter and dark energy, the physicists plan to analyze their model more rigorously in the future. Their future work includes redoing their study while taking into account small inhomogeneous and anisotropic perturbations, but they do not expect small perturbations to significantly affect the results.

“It is satisfying to note that such straightforward corrections can potentially resolve so many issues at once,” Das said.

  • Wulfrano Ruiz Sainz

    These physicists sure know how to masturbate!

  • Slinky

    The universe is filled with light, not gravitron’s. Every star in the universe emits light constantly in a 360 degree sphere. If you stop anywhere in the universe and look around you will see stars or galaxies. Why is that? It’s not because the universe is filled with gravitrons…nope it’s because it’s filled with light in transit. and no I did not have to go to school to figure it out or get paid.

  • Bugsy Jac-Trots

    Bi-Polar Duality than Singular Unity-From AMBIGUITY, VARIETY as the origins of reality

  • Joe Blow

    They’re just reverting back to the solid state model, which was disproved in the 50’s which proved the background radiation of the universe had a beginning.

    Those guys are fricking geniuses over there for sure!

  • Sam

    Love it.
    So much of what we mundanely experience remains resolvable with so many explanations.

  • cbsnyder1

    So, if the universe is constant, how do they account for the redshift and expansion that is known to exist?

    I’m not advocating that redshift can’t be explained some other way, I’m just asking the question for the sake of argument, because that’s what all Big Bangers are going to ask.

  • musikfanat22

    Of course it existed forever. Where would it come from? Where will it go?

    • The redhawk

      God created it.

      • Scaramouche

        Then who created God? Btw, if God created it, then that means it had a creation, which means it had a beginning.

        • The redhawk

          His mom and dad, who do you think. Jeesh.

        • Peter Dewar-Finch

          Perhaps the Universe IS God, both have no beginning and no end and everything in the Universe was created by the Universe.

          • BoB

            Beginnings and endings suggest time, and time is merely a concept invented by humans. Since as far as we know, humans only exist on one rock in one solar system in the billions of solar systems in the galaxy in the billions of galaxies in the universe, the concept of time is rather irrelevant to the universe–don’t you think?

          • Chirpy

            Won’t someone please think of the children…..not missing the bus…

      • seamus mcdermott

        She did not.

        • BoB

          Yes she did.

          • Brian

            God is a bronze age myth. You would think that by 2016 we would have gotten over that mythology as we got over the Greco-Roman mythology. The Judeo-Christian mythology is no different from them. Moreover more evil has been perpetrated in the name of the abrahamic religions than almost anything else I can think of.

            I still believe in the Big Bang. Not all scientists believe that a Big Crunch is a necessary corollary to the Big Bang.

          • Neil Creamer

            You’re right about the Bronze Age myths but did you realise that the Big Bang is simply a re-working of the same story invented by a Catholic priest called Georges Lemaitre? Google it.

            I think it’s also interesting that you _believe_ in the Big Bang. Belief is for religions, not scientific theories, but BBT clearly is a modern creation myth with many believers.

            Philosophically, it’s a bad idea. A beginning suggests something before, and the idea that something came out of nothing, no matter how qualified it is with labels like ‘quantum vacuum’, is beyond the realms of any proper scientific theory.

          • Doug Stenson

            You do Lemaitre a disservice. He was an excellent mathematician who showed Einstein the consequences of his theory of relativity lead to a singularity. Later observations of the universe indicated that this was the case. The authors will need a better model than they are proposing or better expeimental data to knock the current theory off its perch.

          • Neil Creamer

            That’s true about the mathematics but I think the motivation can be imagined. It’s moot, however, since relativity fails at its inception: Einstein’s spherical wave proof fails although Einstein failed to notice, as did everyone else until recently. Invariant c is not compatible with the principle of relativity and we can safely discard all that nonsense. It’s true that relativity did a better job of describing electromagnetism than classical physics did but it’s right for the wrong reasons. And while the scientific method doesn’t say anything about having to propose a new theory while falsifying an old one, you’re right about that too since human vanity precludes us admitting that we just don’t know.

            If you find any of the above contentious. I’d recommend reading Disruptive by Stephen B Bryant, or looking at the tutorials on his website. He actually does propose a better mechanics too.

          • BoB

            You talk as if God and religion are synonymous.

          • Jaakko Reinikainen

            Most religions are nothing but astrotheology. Human is the tempel of salo mon.

          • midcoast207

            Not the old “more evil” saw…

            Humans will kill each other for any excuse, religion included. Communism killed far more people in the last century, without religion. And the Romans, Incans, and plenty others did a fine job prior to Abrahamic religion. But all are off topic.

            Here’s a clue: The Big Bang is a Christian idea. It took into account all the evidence of the day, just as Einstein’s theory did. The scientific method prevents dogmatic belief in either, but they are consistent with all our observations of the universe. I guess we’ll have to see if this new one bears any fruit, but it seems to contradict any number of observable phenomena in favor of “But… Quantumz, dude.”

            On the other hand we are on the cusp of observing phenomena not envisioned in the days of Einstein. It will either have to fit the model, or the model it.

          • James R. Olson

            Communism is a political idea, and ideas can’t kill. Otherwise spot on.

      • h4x354x0r

        God didn’t create it. God *is* it.

        • BoB

          So we’re merely an atom in the big toe of God?

        • Kajsa Williams

          You’ve just summarized my religion.

      • Doug Stenson

        So where did god come from?

      • musikfanat22

        That’s right

    • Steven Chilson

      Where did you come from Cotton-Eye Joe? lol!

    • Emma

      Where did it come from, Cotton Eye Joe?

    • Vikraman

      Newton I law state that Every body continues to be in its state unless disturbed by external force. What is the external force that made the Big Bang? if at all the Big Bang theory is correct. What is the source of this high pressure, high density stuff that exploded?

      • Chirpy

        Taco Bell?

      • Jennifer

        Has anyone read when the the scientists at CERN are planning to recreate the Big Bang in their lab?

        • seamus mcdermott

          Abraham Lincoln said “You can’t believe everything you read on the ineternet.”

          • David Ocame

            I believed Abraham Lincoln when he posted that on the internet.

        • Carlton Newman

          Let’s see if we can change our perspective and see things
          from a different angle. Instead of trying to make sense of our existence and
          how it came into being from our limited view of what we know about physicality;
          let’s take a step back and view it from the plane of Spirit before physical
          existence came into being.

          The entire Matter Cosmos is a Womb; a place for the
          development of souls. The planes of Spirit are vibrating at such an intensely
          high frequency that from our perspective it appears as Fire. That is why God is
          described in Deu 4:24 and Hbr 12:29 as “a consuming fire”. The soul
          is a seed potential which is too fragile to exist in the planes of Spirit until
          it has been “raised up” in vibration. Every seed contains within it
          the blueprint for replicating the parent but that seed must be nourished and
          cared for in order for it to fulfill its divine plan.

          When God spoke the fiat: “Let there be light, and there
          was light” (Gen 1:3) he was not speaking idly. He was speaking into the
          Void his carefully thought out intent. The first impulse of that Light into the
          Void displaced the darkness by an explosion of Intense Light and Fire. As that
          Light and Fire dispersed and expanded the Void into a Womb all of the star systems
          and planetary homes began to form. This was not left to progress without other
          Spiritual Beings to guide the process. Elohim, Archangels, Angels, Cosmic
          Beings and Elemental Builders of Form; an entire Hierarchy of Conscious Beings,
          were in action guiding the formations according to the Divine Blueprint
          established by God. Even that word “God” can be better understood as
          THE GEOMETRY OF DIVINITY as it embodies all of the mathematical precision in
          the development of the creation.

          God’s Light is Self-luminous, Innately Intelligent,
          Conscious Energy. That Energy can neither be created nor destroyed by us; it is
          immortal and omnipotent. That Energy is intelligently conscious and so it is
          omniscient and Self-Aware. That Energy is everywhere and so it is omnipresent.
          Another name for that Light is Christ and all of the Creation came forth from
          and is an integral part of that Christ. We are all “members in
          particular” (1 Cor 12:27) in that one body of Christ Light.

          Even those forms of life which have no brain (Amoeba, Jelly
          Fish, Sponge, etc) are able to function and live by virtue of the intelligent
          consciousness of the Light of which they are composed. Think of all of the
          symbiotic relationships that you see in nature and you see the interaction of
          the Consciousness of God in those “life forms”. Birds do not need to
          be taught how to build their nests and raise their young. Bees know how to
          build intricate geometrically formed hives and to gather nectar to make honey
          to store in those hives. The flowers that contained that nectar needed the bees
          to help them reproduce through the process of pollination. The balance of
          predator and prey ensures the vitality and balance of life. There is a delicate
          and intricate interplay of forces that is guided on spiritual levels by Angel
          Devas and the elemental beings of Fire (Salamanders), Air (Sylphs), Water
          (Undines) and Earth (Gnomes).

          The evolution of the soul is on an entirely different level
          than other forms of life. Since it is the Divine Intent for the soul to replicate
          God; the soul was given free will and the Power, Wisdom, and Love of the
          Creator encapsulated in a Spirit Spark of the Divine Fire that is called
          “the Spirit of his Son” (Gal 4:6). That Spark is a Threefold Flame; a
          Trinity in a Unity whose color vibration contains the aspects of Power (Blue,
          Father), Wisdom (Yellow, Son) and Love (Pink, Holy Spirit). The soul must
          experience physicality and learn to master the use of God’s energy and so it is
          housed in Four Lower Bodies while incarnated in the earth.

          The Four Lower Bodies are composed of the Four Elements of
          Fire, Air, Water and Earth. The Fire Body is the Etheric Body which contains
          the Records and Memories of all that we have ever done. The Good is recorded in
          the Higher Etheric Body while the Bad is recorded in the Lower Etheric Body
          which is also known as the Electronic Belt. The Etheric Body is the only body
          that does not disintegrate at the change called “death” but remains
          with the soul from incarnation to incarnation. Within the Etheric Body are
          spiritual centers called chakras. Chakras are whirling vortices of energy which
          act as step-down transformers for the light energy fed to the soul through the
          umbilical cord described in Rev 22:1 as “a pure river of water of life, clear
          as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb”. It is
          called the Crystal Cord and it enters the bodies at the point at the crown of
          the head where the soft spot of a baby is located. The Light then passes into
          the Secret Chamber of the Heart Chakra described by Saint Teresa of Avila as
          “The Interior Castle” and to the Threefold Flame ensconced upon the
          Throne (Three-in-One) of the Heart. From there, the light is distributed to the
          chakra system which consists of Seven Major Chakras positioned along the spine
          from the Base of the Spine to the Crown and to the 144 other chakras dispersed
          throughout the body and to the Five Secret Ray Chakras (one in each hand and
          foot and at the spleen). The energy is then stepped down to be received by the
          organs of the physical body. And so it is true: “It is written, That man
          shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.” (Luke 4:4). The
          Word is another name for Christ and Light. The Word signifies Sound and
          Vibration; the creative power by which the creation was formed.

          The other Three of the Four Lower Bodies are: the body of
          Air which is the Mental Body; the body of Water which is the Emotional Body;
          and the body of Earth which is the Physical Body. Each of these bodies have a
          decay rate unique to them. They cannot be permanently sustained in the Physical
          environment and so when they have served their useful “lifespan”, the
          soul departs from them until other bodies can be formed by a different set of
          parents. The new bodies that are formed are based on the karmic records of the
          soul correct and incorrect uses of energy. And this is what the discussion was
          about between Jesus and his Disciples when they asked him: “Master, who did
          sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?” (John 9:2). If the
          man had sinned BEFORE he was born blind, then he would have had to have created
          that “sin” (negative karma) in a previous incarnation.

          And so this is an explanation of the Two Immutable Laws
          governing our physical existence. The Law of Karma is the Law of Recompense
          (Hos 8:7 and Gal 6:7); the cyclic return to us of the energy that we have used
          so that the soul may receive Feedback as a means of learning and self-governing
          itself. The Law of Reincarnation is the means by which the soul is returned
          into the physical realm to continue its evolution. The expiation of negative
          karma, known as sin, is worked out through the pain and suffering that we
          experience; the condition of our Four Lower Bodies; the social and economic
          environment, and those things that we experience along life’s way.

          • seamus mcdermott

            There’s always some twit with the woo-woo stuff hanging around outside the tent, peddling novelties to amuse children.

            • Chirpy


              It’s amazing how much time and energy is wasted with this stuff.

          • Ty Lockton

            Mind freakin’ blown. Now where’s my Starship?

          • A z khan

            Small brain of human being is little better then monkeys ,all theories are guess work on black boards ,no one can reach the source only had to accept it cant be automatic it is thoughtover design by the only one powerful creator who also created human beings in best of sciences.

            • Paul Donohue

              maybe your brain is little better than a monkeys

              • Chirpy


            • Jeff

              What if the big bang was just one in an infinite series of big bangs? Many astrophysicists believe that once the universe expands far enough, it will implode in upon it self. I have difficulty believing the universe was created by a single point, what about conservation of matter?

            • mark slater

              I think all mass was next to each other in an Hydrogen 1 filled universe. As atoms fuse they create space, as blackholes in galaxies devour their stars the distance inbetween them increase. Some interesting points made here….


            • aethel

              Oscillating universe makes sense . . . the evidence of the most recent “big bang” could be the start of expansion after the most recent contraction.

            • SanFernandoCurt

              Glad to know there are still some mysteries in science.

            • kritikosman

              If there was–and that’s a big if–a big bang; …… what caused it? And, what existed before it occurred?

              • Gus Cairns

                The standard answer is that there was no “before”, because time also came into existence at the Big Bang. Stephen Hawking’s metaphor was to say that asking what was before the Big Bang is like asking what’s north of the North Pole.

                • kritikosman

                  That’s an awkward metaphor.

              • A.ashad

                This is not science, but rather speculative “science”. it is not based on facts, but assumptions that future scientists will prove to be fundamentally wrong. We think we know it all, but, in fact, we hardly know anything. Our arrogance has led us to draw various conclusions such as “God doesn’t exist”, only to proclaim ourselves as new gods and masters of this universe. In reality, our knowledge is very limited and our ignorance is limitless. Let’s be humble, and try to investigate the world with socratic humilty and childlike curiosity, we might then learn something.

                • seamus mcdermott

                  God is smart enough to know that she doesn’t exist.

                  • midcoast207

                    Funny how you can declare that with absolutely zero evidence.

                    Sounds almost exactly like a religion.

                    • Doug Stenson

                      I have zero eveidence as to non existence of Santa but I wont wait up on Christmas night looking for him. It is up to those who invent mythological figures to prove their existence not for others to disprove them otherwise we would have to spend our time proving the none existence of the none existent.

                      • midcoast207

                        No, it’s not up to anyone to prove anything to you. You can either believe in something because of evidence, reason, or faith. Something that is accepted on faith need not be provable via the scientific method.

                        This article is interesting because it appears to contradict the Big Bang theory, which has been prevalent for a substantial amount of time. Being that science is based on evidence and provable theories, I will withhold judgement on which theory is correct until more evidence comes in. But the existence of God is not up for debate here. Some would say there is no evidence for His existence, others would say the evidence is all around us. You just have to decide whether your reasons for believing or not believe are based on evidence, reason, or faith.

                        The same is true for this article. There is no science involved here which precludes a flying spaghetti monster creating and controlling the universe from afar by his noodly appendage.

                        Personally, I think it’s a small mind that only believes what they can see. But it’s up to you to do what you want.

                      • Doug Stenson

                        Midcoast, glad you think I have a small mind and that you know what I believe. Personally I think if someone tells me something which is counter intuitive they should come up with a good reason for me to believe it. Where people believe in absurdities they tend to committ atrocities. History is full of such examples.

                • James R. Olson

                  Our ability to observe and analyze our surroundings has led some, not all, to the conclusion that God does not exist. It has led others, myself included, to the conclusion that, while there is no way to be positive, without any evidence to support the assertion that a god or gods exist, we might as well conduct our lives as though gods are imaginary. Your mileage may vary, and I promise not to call you arrogant if you disagree.

                • Bill Netter

                  I’ve always wondered why there was suddenly a Big Bang and life happened. I’ve always thought why couldn’t the universe just always of been there? Long before our solar system was created, there were probably billions of past solar systems that had come and gone, but the endless amounts of space were always there and will always be there. Why Humans think that everything has a beginning and an end is ridiculous. I’m glad that this opinion has finally made it into the minds of scientists because I have thought this way for a long time and at least now it can be considered as just another alternative option for the universe that we all share!

                • Ashbro Whalen

                  was now ever not now? could it have not existed at some time?

                  im thinking a new idea, what if before time and matter there was only timeless infinite space, the same space thats here now.

                  maybe all the planets are dead leftover byproducts that are created by life, so we can check how long each tribe of life went on by the size of the planet. so the idea is life was the first thing to ever begin in that nothingness. not having a physical nervous system it couldnt see here or feel change so even in the beginning there was no now or percievable time but like life today this bodyless life produced a byproduct which was the first matter.

                  life kept producing byproducts and entering eating or impregnating the byproduct so it could expand itself and as it came and died and came and died it made an egg which changed the pressure allowing for different byproducts and then till now its just been a building on the pillars of the life which came before. life being energy back then with no body obviously couldnt die but once it built a body for itself ie us it found itself in a space time and could see what it had created. now as an organism it can experience the now? but still it lives in a timeless eternity of which we now project our experience of the moment, beginning and end of the physical body onto. and maybe all the cellestial bodies are byproducts of life like bones feces bone hair and other chemicals that life produces which explains all the elements. and could we measure how long life lives by measuring the size of the dead planets with no life on them and make it our mission to survive a bit longer then the idiots on mars who probly killed themselves like we are tring to do..

                  • Ashbro Whalen

                    oh and the idea of beginning and end only came into being when the words beginning and end arrose coz theres only ever been infinite eternall boundless timeless nothingness and now is just a illusion created by the agreed experience of change in our bodies, in this hypothesis

                • Kajsa Williams

                  Haven’t they observed the universe expanding? Why is it expanding now if it didn’t expand before?

                • Mongocutwood

                  Another reason why science is just a bunch of hockey pokey. What is accepted as scientific fact today is dis proven tomorrow. Never accept anything as Scientific Fact.

                  • James R. Olson

                    The only thing you have taught us is that you don’t know science, or what you are talking about.

                  • Joshua Marc LeHoux

                    Said Mongocutwood from his computer, on the Internet, never once understanding the irony.

                    Pro-Tip: the media loves to blow this stuff out of proportion. Nothing was “proven wrong” here. Please try again.

                  • Doug Stenson

                    A scientific theory stand until such time as it is shown to be incorrect and repalced by something better. That is not to say all theories will be proved wrong. They may be correct and never proved wrong. Somethings we accept without proof as there has never been any observation which disproved it. The laws of thermodynamics are an example of this and are so fundamental to science that any theory which contradicts them is dismissed.

                  • sattuadharak0019

                    Could not understand anything, went over my head !!!

                  • odog

                    Nassim Haramein still makes the most sense to me.

                  • John Paily

                    The physical universe remains the same. It does not collapse to singularity and goes into Big bang expansion. But the spiritual universe that sustains the physical universe does go thorough such collapse and expands and initializes – Universe needs to be.understood as consciousness and intelligence of creator enfolding and unfolding to sustain the system. – Read the link

                  • Andrew

                    BLACK HOLES DON’T EXIST! Black holes don’t exist it’s all a hoax if anything it would just be water swirling inside the ocean above the firmaments and that water would be dark. Dark matter is just a super saline substance that you can bounce off of, it’s really dark water. It’s a solid and a liquid. I can see the mistake given when seeing something swirling above or below in a dark area/region

                  • Pedro Alexandre Lino Silva

                    An object transmitter (airplane) with “sound A” is traveling with higher speed to the sound (superior to mach 1, supersonic / hypersonic), then, if you are stopped, you can not hear the “sound A”.
                    inside the moving airplane (>mach 1), it is impossible to hear sound emitted in their rear from a transmitter stopped in space
                    THEN, you have SAME BEHAVIOR WITH THE LIGHT, so :
                    An object traveling with speed higher than light (hyper light speed), it gives to you a dot of light in front of you (in the lateral/back, you just see black – “absence of light” relative to you with hyper-speed of light. Hyper-speed of light gives advance position and the 3D reality of image is not the same . hyper dimension) .
                    Black-hole has higher speed than light, that is why you can not see the frequency (it is black in advance of higher speed of the light. You must have the same speed of the black-hole to see frequency of the black-hole).
                    Inside the sun, it is the output of black-hole, it expands the compressed light from the universe of hyper light speed (the black-hole parallel universe). If you introduce yourself in the center of the sun, you will travel in the hyper light speed. Suns are like geodesic points to map the universe and traveling to this point-doors

                  • Pedro Alexandre Lino Silva

                    there are no particles or quantum(quantity) ! particles do not exist. universe is just energy and frequency. Magnetism/others is the action to harmonize . It is the action to join the disharmony of the universe (divergence of different wills – divergence square/triangle the vortex base for rotation and non stop of the life). Energy is from the disharmony/divergence, after harmony, (energy/disharmony) it will stops with an infinite harmonic state. divergence is different wills.
                    If you define “particle”. Then it is not correct, because you are talking about the maximal frequency of the measure machine (microscope, etc.). The maximal frequency of machine defines a DOT, but not the total reality . if the measure machine gets infinite frequency > then there is no particle to the infinite frequency. MAGNETISM HAS NO A PARTICLES to move (it is just staff of theoretical talk – to much) .

                  • Larry Bandy

                    I’ve never believed in the big bang theory .

                  • Ed Darrell

                    How about links to the published paper?

                  • Doyle

                    What I find interesting is that for hundreds (and maybe thousands) of years Hindus have been saying that the universe is expanding; long before Hubble figured it out. They say that it will reach a point where it starts to contract and eventually crunch and repeat. They have all of times and dates worked out. – I am an Atheist, by the way.